This Transnational Training Workshop will address effective protection against non-discrimination in the light of Articles 21 and 47 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Specifically, the workshop is intended to enhance participants’ understanding of the meaning and scope of discrimination, when acting in a discriminatory manner may be justified under the Charter, and how effective protection from non-discrimination is ensured in the light of Article 47 of the Charter.

The workshop is structured in three sessions, which are each examined through the lens of effective protection: (1) The scope of direct and indirect discrimination; (2) Justifications precluding a finding of discrimination; and (3) The relationship between effective protection and non-discrimination in practice. The first session will cover issues related to the material scope of non-discrimination (such as the limited grounds of non-discrimination, the ‘comparability’ of situations) and the personal scope of Article 21 (i.e. its application to private, as well as state entities). Session 2 will address possible justifications which preclude a finding of discrimination, and Session 3 will focus on the relationship between effective protection and non-discrimination in practice. Each session will consist of a roundtable followed by interactive hypothetical case discussions.